本文档来自以下github资源的翻译和整理,一个很棒的框架、库和软件的管理列表。



Appearance

Transparency

Transparency in Menu and Windows

```bash

Reduce Transparency

defaults write com.apple.universalaccess reduceTransparency -bool true

Restore Default Transparency

defaults write com.apple.universalaccess reduceTransparency -bool false ```

Wallpaper

Set Wallpaper

```bash

Up to Mountain Lion

osascript -e 'tell application "Finder" to set desktop picture to POSIX file "/path/to/picture.jpg"'

Since Mavericks

sqlite3 ~/Library/Application\ Support/Dock/desktoppicture.db "update data set value = '/path/to/picture.jpg'" && killall Dock ```

Applications

App Store

List All Apps Downloaded from App Store

```bash

Via find

find /Applications -path '*Contents/_MASReceipt/receipt' -maxdepth 4 -print |\sed 's#.app/Contents/_MASReceipt/receipt#.app#g; s#/Applications/##'

Via Spotlight

mdfind kMDItemAppStoreHasReceipt=1 ```

Show Debug Menu

Works up to Yosemite. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.appstore ShowDebugMenu -bool true

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.appstore ShowDebugMenu -bool false ```

Apple Remote Desktop

Kickstart Manual Pages

bash sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -help

Activate And Deactivate the ARD Agent and Helper

```bash

Activate And Restart the ARD Agent and Helper

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -activate -restart -agent -console

Deactivate and Stop the Remote Management Service

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -deactivate -stop ```

Enable and Disable Remote Desktop Sharing

```bash

Allow Access for All Users and Give All Users Full Access

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -configure -allowAccessFor -allUsers -privs -all

Disable ARD Agent and Remove Access Privileges for All Users

sudo /System/Library/CoreServices/RemoteManagement/ARDAgent.app/Contents/Resources/kickstart -deactivate -configure -access -off ```

Remove Apple Remote Desktop Settings

bash sudo rm -rf /var/db/RemoteManagement ; \ sudo defaults delete /Library/Preferences/com.apple.RemoteDesktop.plist ; \ defaults delete ~/Library/Preferences/com.apple.RemoteDesktop.plist ; \ sudo rm -r /Library/Application\ Support/Apple/Remote\ Desktop/ ; \ rm -r ~/Library/Application\ Support/Remote\ Desktop/ ; \ rm -r ~/Library/Containers/com.apple.RemoteDesktop

Contacts

Debug Mode

```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.addressbook ABShowDebugMenu -bool true

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.addressbook ABShowDebugMenu -bool false ```

Google

Uninstall Google Update

bash ~/Library/Google/GoogleSoftwareUpdate/GoogleSoftwareUpdate.bundle/Contents/Resources/ksinstall --nuke

iTunes

Keyboard Media Keys

This works up to Yosemite. System Integrity Protection was introduced in El Capitan which prevents system Launch Agents from being unloaded. ```bash

Stop Responding to Key Presses

launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.rcd.plist

Respond to Key Presses (Default)

launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.rcd.plist ```

From El Capitan onwards, you can either disable SIP or resort to a kind of hack, which will make iTunes inaccessible to any user, effectively preventing it from starting itself or its helpers. Be aware that for all intents and purposes this will trash your iTunes installation and may conflict with OS updates down the road. bash sudo chmod 0000 /Applications/iTunes.app

Mail

Show Attachments as Icons

bash defaults write com.apple.mail DisableInlineAttachmentViewing -bool yes

Vacuum Mail Index

The AppleScript code below will quit Mail, vacuum the SQLite index, then re-open Mail. On a large email database that hasn't been optimized for a while, this can provide significant improvements in responsiveness and speed. ```applescript (* Speed up Mail.app by vacuuming the Envelope Index Code from: http://web.archive.org/web/20071008123746/http://www.hawkwings.net/2007/03/03/scripts-to-automate-the-mailapp-envelope-speed-trick/ Originally by "pmbuko" with modifications by Romulo Updated by Brett Terpstra 2012 Updated by Mathias Törnblom 2015 to support V3 in El Capitan and still keep backwards compatibility Updated by Andrei Miclaus 2017 to support V4 in Sierra *)

tell application "Mail" to quit set osversion to do shell script "swvers -productVersion" set mailversion to "V2" considering numeric strings if "10.10" <= osversion then set mailversion to "V3" if "10.12" <= osversion then set mailversion to "V4" if "10.13" <= osversion then set mailversion to "V5" if "10.14" <= osversion then set mail_version to "V6" end considering

set sizeBefore to do shell script "ls -lnah ~/Library/Mail/" & mailversion & "/MailData | grep -E 'Envelope Index$' | awk {'print $5'}" do shell script "/usr/bin/sqlite3 ~/Library/Mail/" & mailversion & "/MailData/Envelope\ Index vacuum"

set sizeAfter to do shell script "ls -lnah ~/Library/Mail/" & mail_version & "/MailData | grep -E 'Envelope Index$' | awk {'print $5'}"

display dialog ("Mail index before: " & sizeBefore & return & "Mail index after: " & sizeAfter & return & return & "Enjoy the new speed!")

tell application "Mail" to activate ```

Safari

Change Default Fonts

bash defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2StandardFontFamily Georgia defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DefaultFontSize 16 defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2FixedFontFamily Menlo defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DefaultFixedFontSize 14

Enable Develop Menu and Web Inspector

bash defaults write com.apple.Safari IncludeInternalDebugMenu -bool true && \ defaults write com.apple.Safari IncludeDevelopMenu -bool true && \ defaults write com.apple.Safari WebKitDeveloperExtrasEnabledPreferenceKey -bool true && \ defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2DeveloperExtrasEnabled -bool true && \ defaults write -g WebKitDeveloperExtras -bool true

Get Current Page Data

Other options: get source, get text. bash osascript -e 'tell application "Safari" to get URL of current tab of front window'

Use Backspace/Delete to Go Back a Page

```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2BackspaceKeyNavigationEnabled -bool YES

Disable

defaults write com.apple.Safari com.apple.Safari.ContentPageGroupIdentifier.WebKit2BackspaceKeyNavigationEnabled -bool NO ```

Sketch

Export Compact SVGs

bash defaults write com.bohemiancoding.sketch3 exportCompactSVG -bool yes

Skim

Turn Off Auto Reload Dialog

Removes the dialog and defaults to auto reload. bash defaults write -app Skim SKAutoReloadFileUpdate -boolean true

Terminal

Focus Follows Mouse

```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.Terminal FocusFollowsMouse -string YES

Disable

defaults write com.apple.Terminal FocusFollowsMouse -string NO ```

TextEdit

Use Plain Text Mode as Default

bash defaults write com.apple.TextEdit RichText -int 0

Visual Studio Code

Fix VSCodeVim Key Repeat

bash defaults write com.microsoft.VSCode ApplePressAndHoldEnabled -bool false

Backup

Time Machine

Change Backup Interval

This changes the interval to 30 minutes. The integer value is the time in seconds. bash sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.backupd-auto StartInterval -int 1800

Local Backups

Whether Time Machine performs local backups while the Time Machine backup volume is not available. ```bash

Status

defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine MobileBackups

Enable (Default)

sudo tmutil enablelocal

Disable

sudo tmutil disablelocal ```

Since High Sierra, you cannot disable local snapshots. Time Machine now always creates a local APFS snapshot and uses that snapshot as the data source to create a regular backup, rather than using the live disk as the source, as is the case with HFS formatted disks.

Prevent Time Machine from Prompting to Use New Hard Drives as Backup Volume

bash sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine DoNotOfferNewDisksForBackup -bool true

Show Time Machine Logs

This little script will output the last 12 hours of Time Machine activity followed by live activity. ```bash

!/bin/sh

filter='processImagePath contains "backupd" and subsystem beginswith "com.apple.TimeMachine"'

show the last 12 hours

start="$(date -j -v-12H +'%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')"

echo "" echo "[History (from $start)]" echo ""

log show --style syslog --info --start "$start" --predicate "$filter"

echo "" echo "[Following]" echo ""

log stream --style syslog --info --predicate "$filter" ```

Toggle Backup While on Battery

```bash

Status

sudo defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine RequiresACPower

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine RequiresACPower -bool true

Disable

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.TimeMachine RequiresACPower -bool false ```

Verify Backup

Beginning in OS X 10.11, Time Machine records checksums of files copied into snapshots. Checksums are not retroactively computed for files that were copied by earlier releases of OS X. bash sudo tmutil verifychecksums /path/to/backup

Developer

Vim

Compile Sane Vim

Compiling MacVim via Homebrew with all bells and whistles, including overriding system Vim. bash brew install macvim --HEAD --with-cscope --with-lua --with-override-system-vim --with-luajit --with-python

Neovim

Install the modern Vim drop-in alternative via Homebrew. bash brew install neovim

Xcode

Install Command Line Tools without Xcode

bash xcode-select --install

Remove All Unavailable Simulators

bash xcrun simctl delete unavailable

Dock

Add a Stack with Recent Applications

bash defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-others -array-add '{ "tile-data" = { "list-type" = 1; }; "tile-type" = "recents-tile"; }' && \ killall Dock

Add a Nameless Stack Folder and Small Spacer

bash defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-others -array-add '{ "tile-data" = {}; "tile-type"="small-spacer-tile"; }' && \ killall Dock

Add a Space

bash defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-apps -array-add '{"tile-type"="spacer-tile";}' && \ killall Dock

Add a Small Space

bash defaults write com.apple.dock persistent-apps -array-add '{"tile-type"="small-spacer-tile";}' && \ killall Dock

Auto Rearrange Spaces Based on Most Recent Use

```bash

Enable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock mru-spaces -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable

defaults write com.apple.dock mru-spaces -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Icon Bounce

Global setting whether Dock icons should bounce when the respective application demands your attention. ```bash

Enable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock no-bouncing -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable

defaults write com.apple.dock no-bouncing -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Lock the Dock Size

```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.Dock size-immutable -bool yes && \ killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.Dock size-immutable -bool no && \ killall Dock ```

Reset Dock

bash defaults delete com.apple.dock && \ killall Dock

Resize

Fully resize your Dock's body. To resize change the 0 value as an integer. bash defaults write com.apple.dock tilesize -int 0 && \ killall Dock

Scroll Gestures

Use your touchpad or mouse scroll wheel to interact with Dock items. Allows you to use an upward scrolling gesture to open stacks. Using the same gesture on applications that are running invokes Exposé/Mission Control. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.dock scroll-to-open -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock scroll-to-open -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Enable Dock Autohide

bash defaults write com.apple.dock autohide -bool true && \ killall Dock

Set Auto Show/Hide Delay

The float number defines the show/hide delay in ms. bash defaults write com.apple.dock autohide-time-modifier -float 0.4 && \ defaults write com.apple.dock autohide-delay -float 0 && \ killall Dock

Show Hidden App Icons

```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.dock showhidden -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock showhidden -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Show Only Active Applications

```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.dock static-only -bool true && \ killall Dock

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.dock static-only -bool false && \ killall Dock ```

Documents

Convert File to HTML

Supported formats are plain text, rich text (rtf) and Microsoft Word (doc/docx). bash textutil -convert html file.ext

Files, Disks and Volumes

Create an Empty File

Creates an empty 10 gigabyte test file. bash mkfile 10g /path/to/file

Disable Sudden Motion Sensor

Leaving this turned on is useless when you're using SSDs. bash sudo pmset -a sms 0

Eject All Mountable Volumes

The only reliable way to do this is by sending an AppleScript command to Finder. bash osascript -e 'tell application "Finder" to eject (every disk whose ejectable is true)'

Repair File Permissions

You don't have to use the Disk Utility GUI for this. bash sudo diskutil repairPermissions /

Beginning with OS X El Capitan, system file permissions are automatically protected. It's no longer necessary to verify or repair permissions with Disk Utility. (Source)

Set Boot Volume

```bash

Up to Yosemite

bless --mount "/path/to/mounted/volume" --setBoot

From El Capitan

sudo systemsetup -setstartupdisk /System/Library/CoreServices ```

Show All Attached Disks and Partitions

bash diskutil list

View File System Usage

A continuous stream of file system access info. bash sudo fs_usage

APFS

Available since High Sierra. There is no central utility and usage is inconsistent as most functionality is rolled into tmutil.

Convert Volume from HFS+ to APFS

bash /System/Library/Filesystems/apfs.fs/Contents/Resources/hfs_convert /path/to/file/system

Create New APFS Filesystem

bash /System/Library/Filesystems/apfs.fs/Contents/Resources/newfs_apfs /path/to/device

Create Snapshot

bash tmutil localsnapshot

Delete Snapshot

```bash tmutil deletelocalsnapshots com.apple.TimeMachine.2018-01-26-044042 ````

List Snapshots

bash tmutil listlocalsnapshots /

Mount Snapshot

Snapshots are read-only. bash mkdir ~/mnt /System/Library/Filesystems/apfs.fs/Contents/Resources/mount_apfs -s com.apple.TimeMachine.2018-01-26-044042 / ~/mnt

Disk Images

Create Disk Image From Folder Contents

bash hdiutil create -volname "Volume Name" -srcfolder /path/to/folder -ov diskimage.dmg

If you'd like to encrypt the disk image: bash hdiutil create -encryption -stdinpass -volname "Volume Name" -srcfolder /path/to/folder -ov encrypted.dmg

By default, you'll be prompted for a password. You can automate that by piping in a password: bash echo -n YourPassword | hdiutil create -encryption -stdinpass -volname "Volume Name" -srcfolder /path/to/folder -ov encrypted.dmg

Burn Disk Images to DVD

This command applies to .iso, .img and .dmg images. bash hdiutil burn /path/to/image_file

Disable Disk Image Verification

bash defaults write com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify -bool true && \ defaults write com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify-locked -bool true && \ defaults write com.apple.frameworks.diskimages skip-verify-remote -bool true

Make Volume OS X Bootable

bash bless --folder "/path/to/mounted/volume/System/Library/CoreServices" --bootinfo --bootefi

Mount Disk Image

bash hdiutil attach /path/to/diskimage.dmg

Unmount Disk Image

bash hdiutil detach /dev/disk2s1

Write Disk Image to Volume

Like the Disk Utility "Restore" function. bash sudo asr -restore -noverify -source /path/to/diskimage.dmg -target /Volumes/VolumeToRestoreTo

Finder

Desktop

Show External Media

External HDs, thumb drives, etc. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowExternalHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowExternalHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Show Internal Media

Built-in HDs or SSDs. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowHardDrivesOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Show Removable Media

CDs, DVDs, iPods, etc. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowRemovableMediaOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowRemovableMediaOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Show Network Volumes

AFP, SMB, NFS, WebDAV, etc. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowMountedServersOnDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowMountedServersOnDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Files and Folders

Clear All ACLs

bash sudo chmod -RN /path/to/folder

Hide Folder in Finder

bash chflags hidden /path/to/folder/

Show All File Extensions

bash defaults write -g AppleShowAllExtensions -bool true

Show Hidden Files

```bash

Show All

defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles true

Restore Default File Visibility

defaults write com.apple.finder AppleShowAllFiles false ```

Remove Protected Flag

bash sudo chflags -R nouchg /path/to/file/or/folder

Show Full Path in Finder Title

bash defaults write com.apple.finder _FXShowPosixPathInTitle -bool true

Unhide User Library Folder

bash chflags nohidden ~/Library

Increase Number of Recent Places

bash defaults write -g NSNavRecentPlacesLimit -int 10 && \ killall Finder

Layout

Show "Quit Finder" Menu Item

Makes possible to see Finder menu item "Quit Finder" with default shortcut Cmd + Q ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.finder QuitMenuItem -bool true && \ killall Finder

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder QuitMenuItem -bool false && \ killall Finder ```

Smooth Scrolling

Useful if you’re on an older Mac that messes up the animation. ```bash

Disable

defaults write -g NSScrollAnimationEnabled -bool false

Enable (Default)

defaults write -g NSScrollAnimationEnabled -bool true ```

Rubberband Scrolling

```bash

Disable

defaults write -g NSScrollViewRubberbanding -bool false

Enable (Default)

defaults write -g NSScrollViewRubberbanding -bool true ```

Expand Save Panel by Default

bash defaults write -g NSNavPanelExpandedStateForSaveMode -bool true && \ defaults write -g NSNavPanelExpandedStateForSaveMode2 -bool true

Desktop Icon Visibility

```bash

Hide Icons

defaults write com.apple.finder CreateDesktop -bool false && \ killall Finder

Show Icons (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder CreateDesktop -bool true && \ killall Finder ```

Path Bar

```bash

Show

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowPathbar -bool true

Hide (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowPathbar -bool false ```

Scrollbar Visibility

Possible values: WhenScrolling, Automatic and Always. bash defaults write -g AppleShowScrollBars -string "Always"

Status Bar

```bash

Show

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowStatusBar -bool true

Hide (Default)

defaults write com.apple.finder ShowStatusBar -bool false ```

Save to Disk by Default

Sets default save target to be a local disk, not iCloud. bash defaults write -g NSDocumentSaveNewDocumentsToCloud -bool false

Set Current Folder as Default Search Scope

bash defaults write com.apple.finder FXDefaultSearchScope -string "SCcf"

Set Default Finder Location to Home Folder

bash defaults write com.apple.finder NewWindowTarget -string "PfLo" && \ defaults write com.apple.finder NewWindowTargetPath -string "file://${HOME}"

Set Sidebar Icon Size

Sets size to 'medium'. bash defaults write -g NSTableViewDefaultSizeMode -int 2

Metadata Files

Disable Creation of Metadata Files on Network Volumes

Avoids creation of .DS_Store and AppleDouble files. bash defaults write com.apple.desktopservices DSDontWriteNetworkStores -bool true

Disable Creation of Metadata Files on USB Volumes

Avoids creation of .DS_Store and AppleDouble files. bash defaults write com.apple.desktopservices DSDontWriteUSBStores -bool true

Opening Things

Change Working Directory to Finder Path

If multiple windows are open, it chooses the top-most one. bash cd "$(osascript -e 'tell app "Finder" to POSIX path of (insertion location as alias)')"

Open URL

bash open https://github.com

Open File

bash open README.md

Open Applications

You can open applications using -a. bash open -a "Google Chrome" https://github.com

Open Folder

bash open /path/to/folder/

Open Current Folder

bash open .

Fonts

Clear Font Cache for Current User

To clear font caches for all users, put sudo in front of this command. bash atsutil databases -removeUser && \ atsutil server -shutdown && \ atsutil server -ping

Get SF Mono Fonts

You need to download and install Xcode 8 beta for this to work. Afterwards they should be available in all applications. bash cp -v /Applications/Xcode-beta.app/Contents/SharedFrameworks/DVTKit.framework/Versions/A/Resources/Fonts/SFMono-* ~/Library/Fonts

From Sierra onward, they are included in Terminal.app. bash cp -v /Applications/Utilities/Terminal.app/Contents/Resources/Fonts/SFMono-* ~/Library/Fonts

Functions

Please see this file.

Hardware

Bluetooth

```bash

Status

defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.Bluetooth ControllerPowerState

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.Bluetooth ControllerPowerState -int 1

Disable

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.Bluetooth ControllerPowerState -int 0 && \ sudo killall -HUP blued ```

Harddisks

Force Enable Trim

Enable Trim for non-Apple SSDs. This command is available since Yosemite. bash forcetrim

Hardware Information

List All Hardware Ports

bash networksetup -listallhardwareports

Remaining Battery Percentage

bash pmset -g batt | egrep "([0-9]+\%).*" -o --colour=auto | cut -f1 -d';'

Remaining Battery Time

bash pmset -g batt | egrep "([0-9]+\%).*" -o --colour=auto | cut -f3 -d';'

Show Connected Device's UDID

bash system_profiler SPUSBDataType | sed -n -e '/iPad/,/Serial/p' -e '/iPhone/,/Serial/p'

Show Current Screen Resolution

bash system_profiler SPDisplaysDataType | grep Resolution

Show CPU Brand String

bash sysctl -n machdep.cpu.brand_string

Infrared Receiver

```bash

Status

defaults read /Library/Preferences/com.apple.driver.AppleIRController DeviceEnabled

Enable (Default)

defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.driver.AppleIRController DeviceEnabled -int 1

Disable

defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.driver.AppleIRController DeviceEnabled -int 0 ```

Power Management

Prevent System Sleep

Prevent sleep for 1 hour: bash caffeinate -u -t 3600

Show All Power Management Settings

bash sudo pmset -g

Put Display to Sleep after 15 Minutes of Inactivity

bash sudo pmset displaysleep 15

Put Computer to Sleep after 30 Minutes of Inactivity

bash sudo pmset sleep 30

Check System Sleep Idle Time

bash sudo systemsetup -getcomputersleep

Set System Sleep Idle Time to 60 Minutes

bash sudo systemsetup -setcomputersleep 60

Turn Off System Sleep Completely

bash sudo systemsetup -setcomputersleep Never

Automatic Restart on System Freeze

bash sudo systemsetup -setrestartfreeze on

Chime When Charging

Play iOS charging sound when MagSafe is connected. ```bash

Enable

defaults write com.apple.PowerChime ChimeOnAllHardware -bool true && \ open /System/Library/CoreServices/PowerChime.app

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.PowerChime ChimeOnAllHardware -bool false && \ killall PowerChime ```

Input Devices

Keyboard

Auto-Correct

```bash

Disable

defaults write -g NSAutomaticSpellingCorrectionEnabled -bool false

Enable (Default)

defaults write -g NSAutomaticSpellingCorrectionEnabled -bool true

Show Status

defaults read -g NSAutomaticSpellingCorrectionEnabled ```

Full Keyboard Access

Enable Tab in modal dialogs. ```bash

Text boxes and lists only (Default)

defaults write NSGlobalDomain AppleKeyboardUIMode -int 0

All controls

defaults write NSGlobalDomain AppleKeyboardUIMode -int 3 ```

Key Repeat

Disable the default "press and hold" behavior. ```bash

Enable Key Repeat

defaults write -g ApplePressAndHoldEnabled -bool false

Disable Key Repeat

defaults write -g ApplePressAndHoldEnabled -bool true ```

Key Repeat Rate

Sets a very fast repeat rate, adjust to taste. bash defaults write -g KeyRepeat -int 0.02

Launchpad

Reset Launchpad Layout

You need to restart Dock because Launchpad is tied to it. ```bash

Up to Yosemite

rm ~/Library/Application\ Support/Dock/*.db && \ killall Dock

From El Capitan

defaults write com.apple.dock ResetLaunchPad -bool true && \ killall Dock ```

Media

Audio

Convert Audio File to iPhone Ringtone

bash afconvert input.mp3 ringtone.m4r -f m4af

Create Audiobook From Text

Uses "Alex" voice, a plain UTF-8 encoded text file for input and AAC output. bash say -v Alex -f file.txt -o "output.m4a"

Disable Sound Effects on Boot

bash sudo nvram SystemAudioVolume=" "

Mute Audio Output

bash osascript -e 'set volume output muted true'

Set Audio Volume

bash osascript -e 'set volume 4'

Play Audio File

You can play all audio formats that are natively supported by QuickTime. bash afplay -q 1 filename.mp3

Speak Text with System Default Voice

bash say 'All your base are belong to us!'

Video

Auto-Play Videos in QuickTime Player

bash defaults write com.apple.QuickTimePlayerX MGPlayMovieOnOpen 1

Networking

Bonjour

Bonjour Service

```bash

Disable

sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist ProgramArguments -array-add "-NoMulticastAdvertisements"

Enable (Default)

sudo defaults write /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist ProgramArguments -array "/usr/sbin/mDNSResponder" "-launchd" ```

DHCP

Renew DHCP Lease

bash sudo ipconfig set en0 DHCP

Show DHCP Info

bash ipconfig getpacket en0

DNS

Clear DNS Cache

bash sudo dscacheutil -flushcache && \ sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

Hostname

Set Computer Name/Host Name

bash sudo scutil --set ComputerName "newhostname" && \ sudo scutil --set HostName "newhostname" && \ sudo scutil --set LocalHostName "newhostname" && \ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.smb.server NetBIOSName -string "newhostname"

Network Preferences

Network Locations

Switch between network locations created in the Network preference pane. ```bash

Status

scselect

Switch Network Location

scselect LocationNameFromStatus ```

Set Static IP Address

bash networksetup -setmanual "Ethernet" 192.168.2.100 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.1

Networking Tools

Ping a Host to See Whether It’s Available

bash ping -o github.com

Troubleshoot Routing Problems

bash traceroute github.com

SSH

Permanently Add Private Key Passphrase to SSH Agent

Prior to macOS Sierra, ssh would present a dialog asking for your passphrase and would offer the option to store it into the keychain. This UI was deprecated some time ago and has been removed.

Instead, a new UseKeychain option was introduced in macOS Sierra allowing users to specify whether they would like for the passphrase to be stored in the keychain. This option was enabled by default on macOS Sierra, which caused all passphrases to be stored in the keychain.

This was not the intended default behavior, so this has been changed in macOS 10.12.2. (Source) bash ssh-add -K /path/to/private_key Then add to ~/.ssh/config: bash Host server.example.com IdentityFile /path/to/private_key UseKeychain yes

Remote Login

```bash

Enable remote login

sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/ssh.plist

Disable remote login

sudo launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/ssh.plist ```

TCP/IP

Show Application Using a Certain Port

This outputs all applications currently using port 80. bash sudo lsof -i :80

Show External IP Address

Works if your ISP doesn't replace DNS requests (which it shouldn't). bash dig +short myip.opendns.com @resolver1.opendns.com Alternative that works on all networks. ```bash curl -s https://api.ipify.org && echo ````

TFTP

Start Native TFTP Daemon

Files will be served from /private/tftpboot. bash sudo launchctl load -F /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/tftp.plist && \ sudo launchctl start com.apple.tftpd

Wi-Fi

Join a Wi-Fi Network

bash networksetup -setairportnetwork en0 WIFI_SSID WIFI_PASSWORD

Scan Available Access Points

Create a symbolic link to the airport command for easy access: bash sudo ln -s /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport /usr/local/bin/airport Run a wireless scan: bash airport -s

Show Current SSID

bash /System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/Current/Resources/airport -I | awk '/ SSID/ {print substr($0, index($0, $2))}'

Show Local IP Address

bash ipconfig getifaddr en0

Show Wi-Fi Connection History

bash defaults read /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.airport.preferences | grep LastConnected -A 7

Show Wi-Fi Network Passwords

Exchange SSID with the SSID of the access point you wish to query the password from. bash security find-generic-password -D "AirPort network password" -a "SSID" -gw

Turn on Wi-Fi Adapter

bash networksetup -setairportpower en0 on

Package Managers

  • Fink - The full world of Unix Open Source software for Darwin. A little outdated.
  • Homebrew - The missing package manager for OS X. The most popular choice.
  • MacPorts - Compile, install and upgrade either command-line, X11 or Aqua based open-source software. Very clean, it's what I use.

Printing

Clear Print Queue

bash cancel -a -

Expand Print Panel by Default

bash defaults write -g PMPrintingExpandedStateForPrint -bool true && \ defaults write -g PMPrintingExpandedStateForPrint2 -bool true

Quit Printer App After Print Jobs Complete

bash defaults write com.apple.print.PrintingPrefs "Quit When Finished" -bool true

Security

Application Firewall

Firewall Service

```bash

Show Status

sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --getglobalstate

Enable

sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --setglobalstate on

Disable (Default)

sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --setglobalstate off ```

Add Application to Firewall

bash sudo /usr/libexec/ApplicationFirewall/socketfilterfw --add /path/to/file

Gatekeeper

Add Gatekeeper Exception

bash spctl --add /path/to/Application.app

Remove Gatekeeper Exception

bash spctl --remove /path/to/Application.app

Manage Gatekeeper

```bash

Status

spctl --status

Enable (Default)

sudo spctl --master-enable

Disable

sudo spctl --master-disable ```

Passwords

Generate Secure Password and Copy to Clipboard

bash LC_ALL=C tr -dc "[:alnum:]" < /dev/urandom | head -c 20 | pbcopy

Physical Access

Launch Screen Saver

```bash

Up to Sierra

open /System/Library/Frameworks/ScreenSaver.framework/Versions/A/Resources/ScreenSaverEngine.app

From High Sierra

/System/Library/CoreServices/ScreenSaverEngine.app/Contents/MacOS/ScreenSaverEngine ```

Lock Screen

bash /System/Library/CoreServices/Menu\ Extras/User.menu/Contents/Resources/CGSession -suspend

Screensaver Immediate Lock

```bash

Status

defaults read com.apple.screensaver askForPasswordDelay

Enable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPasswordDelay -int 0

Disable (Integer = lock delay in seconds)

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPasswordDelay -int 10 ```

Screensaver Password

```bash

Status

defaults read com.apple.screensaver askForPassword

Enable

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPassword -int 1

Disable (Default)

defaults write com.apple.screensaver askForPassword -int 0 ```

Wiping Data

Note: The srm command appears to have been removed on MacOS after 10.9. There is a note on an Apple support page hinting as to why:

With an SSD drive, Secure Erase and Erasing Free Space are not available in Disk Utility. These options are not needed for an SSD drive because a standard erase makes it difficult to recover data from an SSD.

Securely Remove File

bash srm /path/to/file

Securely Remove Folder

bash srm -r /path/to/folder/

Securely Remove Path (Force)

bash srm -rf /path/to/complete/destruction

Search

Find

Recursively Delete .DS_Store Files

bash find . -type f -name '*.DS_Store' -ls -delete

Locate

Build Locate Database

bash sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.locate.plist

Search via Locate

The -i modifier makes the search case insensitive. bash locate -i *.jpg

System

AirDrop

```bash

Enable AirDrop over Ethernet and on Unsupported Macs

defaults write com.apple.NetworkBrowser BrowseAllInterfaces -bool true

Enable (Default)

defaults remove com.apple.NetworkBrowser DisableAirDrop

Disable

defaults write com.apple.NetworkBrowser DisableAirDrop -bool YES ```

AppleScript

Execute AppleScript

bash osascript /path/to/script.scpt

Basics

Compare Two Folders

bash diff -qr /path/to/folder1 /path/to/folder2

Copy Large File with Progress

Make sure you have pv installed and replace /dev/rdisk2 with the appropriate write device or file. bash FILE=/path/to/file.iso pv -s $(du -h $FILE | awk '/.*/ {print $1}') $FILE | sudo dd of=/dev/rdisk2 bs=1m

Restore Sane Shell

In case your shell session went insane (some script or application turned it into a garbled mess). bash stty sane

Restart

bash sudo reboot

Shutdown

bash sudo poweroff

Show Build Number of OS

bash sw_vers

Uptime

How long since your last restart. bash uptime

Clipboard

Copy data to Clipboard

bash cat whatever.txt | pbcopy

Convert Clipboard to Plain Text

bash pbpaste | textutil -convert txt -stdin -stdout -encoding 30 | pbcopy

Convert Tabs to Spaces for Clipboard Content

bash pbpaste | expand | pbcopy

Copy data from Clipboard

bash pbpaste > whatever.txt

Sort and Strip Duplicate Lines from Clipboard Content

bash pbpaste | sort | uniq | pbcopy

FileVault

Automatically Unlock FileVault on Restart

If FileVault is enabled on the current volume, it restarts the system, bypassing the initial unlock. The command may not work on all systems. bash sudo fdesetup authrestart

FileVault Service

```bash

Status

sudo fdesetup status

Enable

sudo fdesetup enable

Disable (Default)

sudo fdesetup disable ```

Information/Reports

Generate Advanced System and Performance Report

bash sudo sysdiagnose -f ~/Desktop/

Install OS

Create Bootable Installer

```bash

High Sierra

sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ High\ Sierra.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/MyVolume --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ macOS\ High\ Sierra.app

Sierra

sudo /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Sierra.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/MyVolume --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ macOS\ Sierra.app

El Capitan

sudo /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ El\ Capitan.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/MyVolume --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ El\ Capitan.app

Yosemite

sudo /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ Yosemite.app/Contents/Resources/createinstallmedia --volume /Volumes/MyVolume --applicationpath /Applications/Install\ OS\ X\ Yosemite.app ```

Kernel Extensions

Display Status of Loaded Kernel Extensions

bash sudo kextstat -l

Load Kernel Extension

bash sudo kextload -b com.apple.driver.ExampleBundle

Unload Kernel Extensions

bash sudo kextunload -b com.apple.driver.ExampleBundle

LaunchAgents

Please see this file.

LaunchServices

Rebuild LaunchServices Database

To be independent of OS X version, this relies on locate to find lsregister. If you do not have your locate database built yet, do it. bash sudo $(locate lsregister) -kill -seed -r

Login Window

Set Login Window Text

bash sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.loginwindow LoginwindowText "Your text"

Memory Management

Purge memory cache

bash sudo purge

Show Memory Statistics

```bash

One time

vm_stat

Table of data, repeat 10 times total, 1 second wait between each poll

vm_stat -c 10 1 ```

Notification Center

Notification Center Service

```bash

Disable

launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.notificationcenterui.plist && \ killall -9 NotificationCenter

Enable (Default)

launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.notificationcenterui.plist ```

QuickLook

Preview via QuickLook

bash qlmanage -p /path/to/file

Remote Apple Events

```bash

Status

sudo systemsetup -getremoteappleevents

Enable

sudo systemsetup -setremoteappleevents on

Disable (Default)

sudo systemsetup -setremoteappleevents off ```

Root User

```bash

Enable

dsenableroot

Disable

dsenableroot -d ```

Safe Mode Boot

```bash

Status

nvram boot-args

Enable

sudo nvram boot-args="-x"

Disable

sudo nvram boot-args="" ```

Screenshots

Take Delayed Screenshot

Takes a screenshot as JPEG after 3 seconds and displays in Preview. bash screencapture -T 3 -t jpg -P delayedpic.jpg

Save Screenshots to Given Location

Sets location to ~/Desktop. bash defaults write com.apple.screencapture location ~/Desktop && \ killall SystemUIServer

Save Screenshots in Given Format

Sets format to png. Other options are bmp, gif, jpg, jpeg, pdf, tiff. bash defaults write com.apple.screencapture type -string "png"

Disable Shadow in Screenshots

bash defaults write com.apple.screencapture disable-shadow -bool true && \ killall SystemUIServer

Set Default Screenshot Name

Date and time remain unchanged. bash defaults write com.apple.screencapture name "Example name" && \ killall SystemUIServer

Software Installation

Install PKG

bash installer -pkg /path/to/installer.pkg -target /

Software Update

Install All Available Software Updates

bash sudo softwareupdate -ia

Set Software Update Check Interval

Set to check daily instead of weekly. bash defaults write com.apple.SoftwareUpdate ScheduleFrequency -int 1

Show Available Software Updates

bash sudo softwareupdate -l

Set Software Update Server

This should only be done for testing purposes or unmanaged clients. To use network-wide, either correctly set up DNS along with Apple SUS service and bind your clients via OpenDirectory. Alternatively, use Reposado together with correct network DNS settings to make resolution transparent. Margarita looks nice to have as well. ```bash

Use own SUS

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/com.apple.SoftwareUpdate CatalogURL http://su.example.com:8088/index.sucatalog

Reset to Apple SUS

sudo defaults delete /Library/Preferences/com.apple.SoftwareUpdate CatalogURL ```

Software Version

Show System Software Version

bash sw_vers -productVersion

Spotlight

Spotlight Indexing

```bash

Disable

mdutil -i off -d /path/to/volume

Enable (Default)

mdutil -i on /path/to/volume ```

Erase Spotlight Index and Rebuild

bash mdutil -E /path/to/volume

Search via Spotlight

bash mdfind -name 'searchterm'

Show Spotlight Indexed Metadata

bash mdls /path/to/file

System Integrity Protection

Disable System Integrity Protection

Reboot while holding Cmd + R, open the Terminal application and enter: bash csrutil disable && reboot

Enable System Integrity Protection

Reboot while holding Cmd + R, open the Terminal application and enter: bash csrutil enable && reboot

Date and Time

List Available Timezones

bash sudo systemsetup -listtimezones

Set Timezone

bash sudo systemsetup -settimezone Europe/Berlin

Set Clock Using Network Time

```bash

Status

sudo systemsetup getusingnetworktime

Enable (Default)

sudo systemsetup setusingnetworktime on

Disable

sudo systemsetup setusingnetworktime off ```

Terminal

Ring Terminal Bell

Rings the terminal bell (if enabled) and puts a badge on it. bash tput bel

Alternative Terminals

  • iTerm2 - A better Terminal.app.
  • kitty - Modern, GPU-accelerated terminal emulator.

Shells

Bash

Install the latest version and set as current user's default shell: bash brew install bash && \ echo $(brew --prefix)/bin/bash | sudo tee -a /etc/shells && \ chsh -s $(brew --prefix)/bin/bash

  • Homepage - The default shell for OS X and most other Unix-based operating systems.
  • Bash-it - Community Bash framework, like Oh My Zsh for Bash.

fish

Install the latest version and set as current user's default shell: bash brew install fish && \ echo $(brew --prefix)/bin/fish | sudo tee -a /etc/shells && \ chsh -s $(brew --prefix)/bin/fish

  • Homepage - A smart and user-friendly command line shell for OS X, Linux, and the rest of the family.
  • The Fishshell Framework - Provides core infrastructure to allow you to install packages which extend or modify the look of your shell.
  • Installation & Configuration Tutorial - How to Setup Fish Shell with Fisherman, Powerline Fonts, iTerm2 and Budspencer Theme on OS X.

Zsh

Install the latest version and set as current user's default shell: bash brew install zsh && \ sudo sh -c 'echo $(brew --prefix)/bin/zsh >> /etc/shells' && \ chsh -s $(brew --prefix)/bin/zsh

  • Homepage - Zsh is a shell designed for interactive use, although it is also a powerful scripting language.
  • Oh My Zsh - An open source, community-driven framework for managing your Zsh configuration.
  • Prezto - A speedy Zsh framework. Enriches the command line interface environment with sane defaults, aliases, functions, auto completion, and prompt themes.
  • zgen - Another open source framework for managing your zsh configuration. Zgen will load oh-my-zsh compatible plugins and themes and has the advantage of both being faster and automatically cloning any plugins used in your configuration for you.

Terminal Fonts

  • Anonymous Pro - A family of four fixed-width fonts designed with coding in mind.
  • Codeface - A gallery and repository of monospaced fonts for developers.
  • DejaVu Sans Mono - A font family based on the Vera Fonts.
  • Hack - Hack is hand groomed and optically balanced to be your go-to code face.
  • Inconsolata - A monospace font, designed for code listings and the like.
  • Input - A flexible system of fonts designed specifically for code.
  • Meslo - Customized version of Apple's Menlo font.
  • Operator Mono - A surprisingly usable alternative take on a monospace font (commercial).
  • Powerline Fonts - Repo of patched fonts for the Powerline plugin.
  • Source Code Pro - A monospaced font family for user interfaces and coding environments.

Glossary

Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS Version Information

Version | Codename | Release Date | Most Recent Version -------------------------- | ------------------ | ------------------ | ------------------------------------- Rhapsody Developer Release | Grail1Z4 / Titan1U | August 31, 1997 | DR2 (May 14, 1998) Mac OS X Server 1.0 | Hera | March 16, 1999 | 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000) Mac OS X Developer Preview | n/a | March 16, 1999 | DP4 (April 5, 2000) Mac OS X Public Beta | Kodiak | September 13, 2000 | n/a Mac OS X 10.0 | Cheetah | March 24, 2001 | 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001) Mac OS X 10.1 | Puma | September 25, 2001 | 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002) Mac OS X 10.2 | Jaguar | August 24, 2002 | 10.2.8 (October 3, 2003) Mac OS X 10.3 | Panther | October 24, 2003 | 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005) Mac OS X 10.4 | Tiger | April 29, 2005 | 10.4.11 (November 14, 2007) Mac OS X 10.5 | Leopard | October 26, 2007 | 10.5.8 (August 5, 2009) Mac OS X 10.6 | Snow Leopard | August 28, 2009 | 10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011) Mac OS X 10.7 | Lion | July 20, 2011 | 10.7.5 (September 19, 2012) OS X 10.8 | Mountain Lion | July 25, 2012 | 10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013) OS X 10.9 | Mavericks | October 22, 2013 | 10.9.5 (13F1112) (September 18, 2014) OS X 10.10 | Yosemite | October 16, 2014 | 10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015) OS X 10.11 | El Capitan | September 30, 2015 | 10.11.6 (15G31) (July 18, 2016) macOS 10.12 | Sierra | September 20, 2016 | 10.12.6 (16G29) (July 19, 2017) macOS 10.13 | High Sierra | September 25, 2017 | 10.13.6 (17G65) (July 9, 2018) macOS 10.14 | Mojave | September 24, 2018 | 10.14 (18A391) (September 24, 2018)

License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


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